Camran Nezhat, M.D. has been called the Father of Modern-Day Operative Laparoscopy for pioneering the technique of operating off the video monitor, which allowed him to perform the most advanced surgical procedures in a minimally invasive manner for the first time (1-56). Early on, he declared that wherever in the body a cavity exists or can be created minimally invasive surgery is possible and probably preferable, the limiting factor is skill and experience of the surgeon and availability of proper instrumentations. (5,9) Prior to introducing these changes, it was universally believed at the time that the majority of surgical procedures could only be performed using large-incision, open surgery. By proving (1-56) that the majority of surgical procedures could be converted to minimally invasive ones, Dr. Nezhat opened the path to minimally invasive surgery for surgeons all over the world. (1-56)
In the 1990s, Dr. Nezhat went on to collaborate with robotic pioneers, Ajit Shah and Phil Green of the Stanford Research Institute, to develop the da Vinci Robot (46), becoming among the first to report on robotic surgery’s many applications. (10, 44-49) Following Dr. Nezhat’s pioneering techniques of Video-Assisted Endoscopy, he and his collaborators were able to perform the following procedures in a minimally invasive manner for the first time in surgical history:
● Laparoscopic treatment of extensive endometriosis involving multiple organs 1985, 1986, 1988, 1989 (4-9)
● Radical hysterectomy with paraaortic and pelvic node dissection: 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992 (9,12-14)
● Operative laparoscopy during advanced pregnancy: 1990, 1991 (15)
● Management of ovarian remnant: 1991, 1992 (17)
● Sacral colpopexy: 1992, 1994 (9,18)
● Laparoscopic-assisted myomectomy: 1994 (19)
● Laparoscopic repair of vesico vaginal fistulas: 1994 (20)
● Vaginal cuff dehiscence following laparoscopic hysterectomy: 1995, 1996 (21)
● Laparoscopic debulking for advanced ovarian cancer: 1996 (22)
● Laparoscopic repair of Cesarean section defect (Niche, Ishmocele, Diverticulum repair): 2003 (23)
● Laparoscopic removal of dermoid cyst: 1989 (11)
● Bowel resection (including shaving technique, disk excision, segmental colon resection by natural orifice of vagina and rectum, also by mini laparotomy and total laparoscopy): 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1994 (6,9,12,24-32)
● Ureter resection: 1992, 1990 (33,34)
● Bladder resection: 1992 (35)
● Ureteroneocystostomy with and without Psoas Hitch: 1992, 1999 (33,34,36)
● Vesico vaginal fistula repair: 1994 (20)
UPPER ABDOMEN AND CHEST
● Diaphragm resection and reanastamosis: 1992 (37)
● Laparoscopic treatment of lung endometriosis: 1992, 2012 (38,39)
● Laparoscopic treatment of liver endometriosis: 2005 (40)
● Laparoscopic repair of major retroperitoneal vessels: 1997, 2002 (41,42)
● Camran Nezhat, M.D, along with his brother, Farr Nezhat, M.D. and their team, were the first to identify and propose new classifications for ovarian endometriomas based on their new observations of pathological findings. (43)
OTHER EARLY REPORTS
Some other procedures reported early on by Dr. Nezhat and his team, in peer-reviewed journals, include:
4) Nezhat, F., Nezhat, C., Welander, C. E. & Benigno, B. Four ovarian cancers diagnosed during laparoscopic management of 1011 women with adnexal masses. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 167, 790 — 796 (1992).
These were all among some of the procedures performed laparoscopically for the first time by Dr. Nezhat, and his team, which included Farr Nezhat, M.D. and Ceana Nezhat, M.D. In addition to pioneering these advanced minimally invasive procedures for the first time, Dr. Nezhat and his team also introduced revolutionary technological innovations, such as vessel-sealing cutting devices, suction irrigation, lasers, instruments for safe abdominal entry, robotics, etc. These advances drastically reduced surgical morbidities and mortalities, innovations which significantly improved the health outcomes for millions of patients throughout the world.
TEACHING AND LEADERSHIP ROLES
Dr. Nezhat has also trained many physicians, who have become internationally-known pillars of their communities. As well, Dr. Nezhat introduced one of the first postgraduate courses in advanced minimally invasive surgery in 1982, and since then has continued to teach and share his knowledge with medical professionals all over the world. Recognized by his own peers for his surgical excellence, Dr. Nezhat’s colleagues have recruited him to serve in many teaching and leadership roles in several medical societies and universities, including as President, Honorary President, Board member,Visiting Professor, Clinical Professor, and Adjunct Clinical Professor. For his outstanding contributions as the pioneer and leading practitioner in the field of Women’s Health and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Dr. Nezhat has also received numerous awards from the most prestigious medical societies, such as the American College of Surgeons (ACS), American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (ACOG), American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons (SLS), etc. His most recent award includes the ‘Distinguished Surgeon Award’ awarded in 2015 from the American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Dr. Nezhat was also chosen by his peers at the ACOG to lead the ACOG’s first-ever live telesurgery series, which they eponymously named “Drs. Camran, Farr, and Ceana Nezhat Live Telesurgery Forum,” inaugurated in May 2015 at the Annual Clinical Meeting of ACOG in San Francisco, California.
In collaboration with the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons, Dr. Nezhat started the world’s first “Endometriosis Specialist” multidisciplinary subspecialty fellowship in Minimally Invasive and Robotic Surgery. A prolific academic researcher as well, Dr. Nezhat is author of eight textbooks and several hundred peer-reviewed articles and book chapters.
As a dedicated patient’s rights advocate, Dr. Nezhat has also founded the Worldwide Endometriosis March (EndoMarch), a global grassroots movement with the mission of raising awareness about endometriosis and finding noninvasive diagnostic testing, and ultimately, a prevention and cure (www.worldwideendomarch).
Now located in the San Francisco Bay Area, Dr. Nezhat has been involved in research, teaching, innovating, and philanthropic activities for over three decades, while in private practice all of his professional life. For more information, please visit www.nezhat.org, or contact Dr. Nezhat at email@example.com.
1) Podratz, Karl, MD PHD. Degrees of Freedom: Advances in Gynecological and Obstetrical Surgery. Remembering Milestones and Achievements in Surgery: Inspiring Quality for a Hundred Years 1913-2012. Published by American College of Surgeons 2012. Tampa: Faircount Media Group; 2013.
6) Nezhat C, Nezhat F. Evaluation of safety of videolaseroscopictreatment of bowel endometriosis, Scientific Paper, 44th Annual Meeting of the American Fertility Society, Atlanta Hilton and Towers, Atlanta, Georgia, October 8 — 13, 1988
8) Nezhat C, Videolaseroscopy: a new modality for the treatment of diseases of the reproductive organs. ColposcGynecol Laser Surg 1986; 2: 221 – 224
12) Nezhat C, Nezhat F. Silfen SL. Videolaseroscopy: the CO2 laser for advanced operative laparoscopy. Obstet Gynecol ClinNorth Am. 1991;18:585–604.
14) Nezhat CR, Nezhat FR, Ramirez CE, et al. Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and laparoscopic assisted vaginal radical hysterectomy with pelvic and paraaortic node dissection, J Gynecol Surg. 1993;9:105–120.
22) Amara DP, Nezhat C, Teng NN, Nezhat F, Nezhat C, RosatiM. Operative laparoscopy in the management of ovarian cancer. Surgical Laparoscopy 1996 Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques. P 6(1): 38 — 45. (1996)
25) Nezhat C, Pennington E, Nezhat F, Silfen SL. Laparoscopically assisted anterior rectal wall resection and reanastomosis for deeply infiltrating endometriosis. SurgLaparosc Endosc, June 1991;1(2): 106 — 108.
27) Nezhat F, Nezhat C, Pennington E, Ambroze W Jr. Laparoscopic segmental resection for infiltrating endometriosis of the recto sigmoid colon: a preliminary report. Surg LaparoscEndosc. 1992;2:212–216.
28) Nezhat C, Nezhat F, Pennington E. Laparoscopic treatment of lower colorectal and infiltrating rectovaginal septum endometriosis by the technique of videolaseroscopy. Br J ObstetGynae- col. 1992;99:664–667.
30) Nezhat C, Nezhat F, Pennington E, et al. Laparoscopic disk excision and primary repair of the anterior rectal wall for the treatment of full thickness bowel endometriosis. Surg Endosc. 1994;8:682– 685.
40) Nezhat C, Kazerooni T, Berker B, LaShay N, Susan Fernan- dez S, Marziali M. Laparoscopic management of hepatic endometriosis: report of Two Cases and review of literature. J Min Invas Gynecol. 2005;12:196–200.
44) Nezhat C, Lavie O, Hsu S, Watson J, Barnett O, Lemyre M. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic myomectomy compared with standard laparoscopic myomectomy — a retrospective matched control study. Fertility and Sterility Vol. 91 (2), p 556 — 565. (2009)
46) Shah A, Schipper E. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopy. In: Nezhat C, Nezhat F, Nezhat CH, editors. Nezhat’s Video-Assisted and Robotic- Assisted Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2013: 628-632.
47) Nezhat CR, Lewis M, Kotikela S, Veeraswamy A, Saadat L, Hajhosseini B, Nezhat CH. Robotic Versus Standard Laparoscopy for the Treatment of Endometriosis. Fertility and Sterility, (2010) Feb-Dec, Volume 94, Issue 7, P 2758 — 2760.
49) Nezhat C, Lavie O, Lemyre M, Unal E, Nezhat CH, Nezhat FR. Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery in Gynecology: Scientific Dream or Reality? Fertility and Sterility, Volume 91, Issue 6, P 2620 — 2622, (2008).