+1-650-327-8778 or office@camrannezhatinstitute.com


Camran Nezhat, M.D. has been called the Father of Modern-Day Operative Laparoscopy for pioneering the technique of operating off the video monitor, which allowed him to perform the most advanced surgical procedures in a minimally invasive manner for the first time (1-56). Early on, he declared that wherever in the body a cavity exists or can be created minimally invasive surgery is possible and probably preferable, the limiting factor is skill and experience of the surgeon and availability of proper instrumentations. (5,9) Prior to introducing these changes, it was universally believed at the time that the majority of surgical procedures could only be performed using large-incision, open surgery. By proving (1-56) that the majority of surgical procedures could be converted to minimally invasive ones, Dr. Nezhat opened the path to minimally invasive surgery for surgeons all over the world. (1-56)

In the 1990s, Dr. Nezhat went on to collaborate with robotic pioneers, Ajit Shah and Phil Green of the Stanford Research Institute, to develop the da Vinci Robot (46), becoming among the first to report on robotic surgery’s many applications. (10, 44-49) Following Dr. Nezhat’s pioneering techniques of Video-Assisted Endoscopy, he and his collaborators were able to perform the following procedures in a minimally invasive manner for the first time in surgical history:


● Laparoscopic treatment of extensive endometriosis involving multiple organs 1985, 1986, 1988, 1989 (4-9)
● Radical hysterectomy with paraaortic and pelvic node dissection: 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992 (9,12-14)
● Operative laparoscopy during advanced pregnancy: 1990, 1991 (15)
● Management of ovarian remnant: 1991, 1992 (17)
● Sacral colpopexy: 1992, 1994 (9,18)
● Laparoscopic-assisted myomectomy: 1994 (19)
● Laparoscopic repair of vesico vaginal fistulas: 1994 (20)
● Vaginal cuff dehiscence following laparoscopic hysterectomy: 1995, 1996 (21)
● Laparoscopic debulking for advanced ovarian cancer: 1996 (22)
● Laparoscopic repair of Cesarean section defect (Niche, Ishmocele, Diverticulum repair): 2003 (23)
● Laparoscopic removal of dermoid cyst: 1989 (11)


● Bowel resection (including shaving technique, disk excision, segmental colon resection by natural orifice of vagina and rectum, also by mini laparotomy and total laparoscopy): 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1994 (6,9,12,24-32)


● Ureter resection: 1992, 1990 (33,34)
● Bladder resection: 1992 (35)
● Ureteroneocystostomy with and without Psoas Hitch: 1992, 1999 (33,34,36)
● Vesico vaginal fistula repair: 1994 (20)


● Diaphragm resection and reanastamosis: 1992 (37)
● Laparoscopic treatment of lung endometriosis: 1992, 2012 (38,39)
● Laparoscopic treatment of liver endometriosis: 2005 (40)


● Laparoscopic repair of major retroperitoneal vessels: 1997, 2002 (41,42)


● Camran Nezhat, M.D, along with his brother, Farr Nezhat, M.D. and their team, were the first to identify and propose new classifications for ovarian endometriomas based on their new observations of pathological findings. (43)

Some other procedures reported early on by Dr. Nezhat and his team, in peer-reviewed journals, include:

1) Nezhat C, Nezhat F, Silfen SL. Laparoscopic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy using multifire GIA surgical stapler. J Gynecol Surg, 1990;6: 287-288.

2) Nezhat F, Winer WK, Nezhat, C. Fimbrioscopy and salpingoscopy in patients with minimal to moderate pelvic endometriosis. Obstetrics and Gynecology. P 75(1): 15 — 17. (1990)​​​

3) Nezhat F, Nezhat C, Gordon S, Wilkins E. Laparoscopic versus abdominal hysterectomy. J Reprod Med, March 1992;37(3): 247 — 250.

4) Nezhat, F., Nezhat, C., Welander, C. E. & Benigno, B. Four ovarian cancers diagnosed during laparoscopic management of 1011 women with adnexal masses. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 167, 790 — 796 (1992).

5) Nezhat C, Nezhat F, Burrell M. Laparoscopically assisted hysterectomy for the management of borderline ovarian tumor: A case report. J Laparoendosc Surg, Aug 1992; 2(4): 167-169

6) Nezhat F, Nezhat C, Bess O, Nezhat CH. Laparoscopic amputation of a noncommunicating rudimentary horn after a hysteroscopic diagnosis: a case study. Surg Laparosc & Endosc.P 4(2):155 — 156. (1994)

7) Nezhat CH, Bastidas A, Pennington E, Nezhat F, Raga F, Nezhat C. Laparoscopic treatment of type IV rectovaginal fistula. J of Am Assoc. of Gyn Lap, Vol. 5, No. 3, Pp: 297 — 299, August 1998.


These were all among some of the procedures performed laparoscopically for the first time by Dr. Nezhat, and his team, which included Farr Nezhat, M.D. and Ceana Nezhat, M.D.  In addition to pioneering these advanced minimally invasive procedures for the first time, Dr. Nezhat and his team also introduced revolutionary technological innovations, such as vessel-sealing cutting devices, suction irrigation, lasers, instruments for safe abdominal entry, robotics, etc. These advances drastically reduced surgical morbidities and mortalities, innovations which significantly improved the health outcomes for millions of patients throughout the world.


Dr. Nezhat has also trained many physicians, who have become internationally-known pillars of their communities. As well, Dr. Nezhat introduced one of the first postgraduate courses in advanced minimally invasive surgery in 1982, and since then has continued to teach and share his knowledge with medical professionals all over the world. Recognized by his own peers for his surgical excellence, Dr. Nezhat’s colleagues have recruited him to serve in many teaching and leadership roles in several medical societies and universities, including as President, Honorary President, Board member,Visiting Professor, Clinical Professor, and Adjunct Clinical Professor. For his outstanding contributions as the pioneer and leading practitioner in the field of Women’s Health and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Dr. Nezhat has also received numerous awards from the most prestigious medical societies, such as the American College of Surgeons (ACS), American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (ACOG), American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons (SLS), etc.  His most recent award includes the ‘Distinguished Surgeon Award’ awarded in 2015 from the American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Dr. Nezhat was also chosen by his peers at the ACOG to lead the ACOG’s first-ever live telesurgery series, which they eponymously named “Drs. Camran, Farr, and Ceana Nezhat Live Telesurgery Forum,” inaugurated in May 2015 at the Annual Clinical Meeting of ACOG in San Francisco, California.

In collaboration with the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons, Dr. Nezhat started the world’s first “Endometriosis Specialist” multidisciplinary subspecialty fellowship in Minimally Invasive and Robotic Surgery.  A prolific academic researcher as well, Dr. Nezhat is author of eight textbooks and several hundred peer-reviewed articles and book chapters.

As a dedicated patient’s rights advocate, Dr. Nezhat has also founded the Worldwide Endometriosis March (EndoMarch), a global grassroots movement with the mission of raising awareness about endometriosis and finding noninvasive diagnostic testing, and ultimately, a prevention and cure (www.worldwideendomarch).

Now located in the San Francisco Bay Area, Dr. Nezhat has been involved in research, teaching, innovating, and philanthropic activities for over three decades, while in private practice all of his professional life. For more information, please visit www.nezhat.org, or contact Dr. Nezhat at camran@camrannezhatinstitute.com.



1) Podratz, Karl, MD PHD. Degrees of Freedom: Advances in Gynecological and Obstetrical Surgery. Remembering Milestones and Achievements in Surgery: Inspiring Quality for a Hundred Years 1913-2012. Published by American College of Surgeons 2012. Tampa: Faircount Media Group; 2013.

2) Carter JE. Biography of Camran Nezhat, MD, FACOG, FACS. JSLS : Journal of the Society of LaparoendoscopicSurgeons. 2006;10(2):275- 280.​​​​​

3) Kelley WE. The Evolution of Laparoscopy and the Revolution in Surgery in the Decade of the 1990s. JSLS :Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons. 2008;12(4):351-357.

4) Stanford News Services Media Monitor. Stanford Report. February 9, 2005; 9.​​​​

5) Nezhat, C., Crowgey, S. R. & Garrison, C. P. Surgical treatment of endometriosis via laser laparoscopy. Fertility & Sterility. P 45, 778 — 783. (1986)

6) Nezhat C, Nezhat F. Evaluation of safety of videolaseroscopictreatment of bowel endometriosis, Scientific Paper, 44th Annual Meeting of the American Fertility Society, Atlanta Hilton and Towers, Atlanta, Georgia, October 8 — 13, 1988

7) Nezhat C, Hood J, Winer W, et al. Videolaseroscopy and laser laparoscopy in gynecology. Br J Hosp Med. P 38, 219 — 224. (1987)

8) Nezhat C, Videolaseroscopy: a new modality for the treatment of diseases of the reproductive organs. ColposcGynecol Laser Surg 1986; 2: 221 – 224

9) Nezhat, C, Nezhat F, Nezhat C, Operative laparoscopy (minimally invasive surgery). State of the art, J Gynecol Surg. 1992; 8:111–141.​​​​​

10) Nezhat C, Saberi NS, Shahmohamady B, Nezhat F. Robotic-assisted laparoscopy in gynecological surgery JSLS. Vol 10 (3), p 317 — 320. (2006)

11) Nezhat C, Winer WK, Nezhat F. Laparoscopic removal of dermoid cysts. Obstet Gynecol, February 1989;73(2): 278 — 281.

12) Nezhat C, Nezhat F. Silfen SL. Videolaseroscopy: the CO2 laser for advanced operative laparoscopy. Obstet Gynecol ClinNorth Am. 1991;18:585–604.​​​​​

13) Nezhat C, Burrell M, Nezhat F, Benigno B, Welander CE. Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with paraaortic and pelvic node dissection. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992;166:864–865.

14) Nezhat CR, Nezhat FR, Ramirez CE, et al. Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and laparoscopic assisted vaginal radical hysterectomy with pelvic and paraaortic node dissection, J Gynecol Surg. 1993;9:105–120.​​​​​

15) Nezhat F, Nezhat C, Silfen S, Fehnel S. Laparoscopic Ovarian cystectomy during pregnancy. J Laparoendosc Surg. 1991;1:161–164.

16) Nezhat C. Letter to the Editor: Radical Hysterectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol, May 1993;168(5): 1643-1644.

17) Nezhat F, Nezhat C. Operative laparoscopy for the treatment of ovarian remnant syndrome. Fertil Steril, May 1992;57(5): 1003 — 1007.​​​​​

18) Nezhat F, Nezhat C, Nezhat CH. Laparoscopic sacral colpopexy for vaginal wall prolapse. Obstet Gynecol. 1994;84:885– 888.

19) Nezhat C, Nezhat F, Bess O, Nezhat CH, Mashiach R. Laparoscopically assisted myomectomy: a report of a new technique in 57 cases. Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud. P 39(1): 39 — 44. (1994)

20) Nezhat CH, Nezhat F, Nezhat C, Rottenberg H. Laparoscopic repair of a vesicovaginal fistula: a case report. Obstet Gynecol. 1994;83:899 – 901.

21) Nezhat CH, Nezhat F, Seidman DS, Nezhat C. Vaginal vault evisceration after total laparoscopic hysterectomy. ObstetGynecol 1996;87: 868–870.

22) Amara DP, Nezhat C, Teng NN, Nezhat F, Nezhat C, RosatiM. Operative laparoscopy in the management of ovarian cancer. Surgical Laparoscopy 1996 Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques. P 6(1): 38 — 45. (1996)

23) Jacobson M, Osias J, Velasco A, Charles R, Nezhat C. Laparoscopic repair of a uteroperitoneal fistula. JSLS. 2003;7:367–369.

24) Nezhat CR, Nezhat FR. Safe laser excision and vaporization of endometriosis. Fertil Steril, 1989; P 52(1): 149 – 151

25) Nezhat C, Pennington E, Nezhat F, Silfen SL. Laparoscopically assisted anterior rectal wall resection and reanastomosis for deeply infiltrating endometriosis. SurgLaparosc Endosc, June 1991;1(2): 106 — 108.

26) Nezhat F, Nezhat C, Pennington E. Laparoscopic proctectomy for infiltrating endometriosis of the rectum. FertilSteril, May 1992;57(5): 1129-1132.

27) Nezhat F, Nezhat C, Pennington E, Ambroze W Jr. Laparoscopic segmental resection for infiltrating endometriosis of the recto sigmoid colon: a preliminary report. Surg LaparoscEndosc. 1992;2:212–216.

28) Nezhat C, Nezhat F, Pennington E. Laparoscopic treatment of lower colorectal and infiltrating rectovaginal septum endometriosis by the technique of videolaseroscopy. Br J ObstetGynae- col. 1992;99:664–667.

29) Nezhat C, Nezhat F, Nezhat CH. Surgery for Endometriosis of the Bowel, Bladder, Ureter, and Diaphragm. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1997; 828: 332-340

30) Nezhat C, Nezhat F, Pennington E, et al. Laparoscopic disk excision and primary repair of the anterior rectal wall for the treatment of full thickness bowel endometriosis. Surg Endosc. 1994;8:682– 685.

31) Nezhat C., Nezhat F. Ambroze W. & Pennington E. Laparoscopic repair of small bowel and colon: A report of 26 cases. Surg Endosc. P 7(2): 88 – 8 9. (1993)

32) Nezhat F. Triumphs and controversies in laparoscopy: the past, the present, and the future. JSLS. 2003;7:1–5.

33) Nezhat C, Nezhat F, Green B. Laparoscopic treatment of obstructed ureter due to endometriosis by resection and ureteroureterostomy. A case report. J Urol. 1992;148:865–868.

34) Nezhat CH, Nezhat F, Freiha F, Nezhat C. Laparoscopic vesicopsoas hitch for infiltrative ureteral endometriosis. FertilSteril. 1999;71:376– 379.

35) Nezhat C, Nezhat F. Laparoscopic segmental bladder resection for endometriosis: a report of two cases. ObstetGynecol. 1993;81:882– 884.

36) Nezhat CH, Malik S, Nezhat F, Nezhat C. Laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy and vesicopsoas hitch for infiltrative endometriosis. JSLS. 2004;8:3–7.

37) Nezhat F, Nezhat C, Levy JS. Laparoscopic treatment of symptomatic diaphragmatic endometriosis: A case report. FertilSteril. 1992;58:614–616.

38) Nezhat C, King LP, Paka C, Odegaard J, Beygui R. Bilateral thoracic endometriosis affecting the lung and diaphragm. JSLS. 2012 Jan-Mar; 16(1): 140–142

39) Nezhat C, Main J, Paka C, Nezhat A, Beygui R. Multidisciplinary Treatment for Thoracic and AbdominopelvicEndometriosis. JSLS. 2014 Jul-Sep; 18(3)

40) Nezhat C, Kazerooni T, Berker B, LaShay N, Susan Fernan- dez S, Marziali M. Laparoscopic management of hepatic endometriosis: report of Two Cases and review of literature. J Min Invas Gynecol. 2005;12:196–200.

41) Nezhat C, Childers J, Nezhat F, et al. Major retroperitoneal vascular injury during laparoscopic surgery. Hum Reprod. 1997; 12:480 – 483.

42) Jacobson M, Oesterling S, Milki A, Nezhat CR. Laparoscopic control of a leaking inferior mesenteric vessel secondary to trocar injury. JSLS. 2002;6:389–391.

43) Nezhat F, Nezhat C, Allan CJ, Metzger DA, Sears DL. Clinical and histologic classification of endometriomas: implications for a mechanism of pathogenesis. J Repro Med. 1992;37:771–776

44) Nezhat C, Lavie O, Hsu S, Watson J, Barnett O, Lemyre M. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic myomectomy compared with standard laparoscopic myomectomy — a retrospective matched control study. Fertility and Sterility Vol. 91 (2), p 556 — 565. (2009)

45) Nezhat C, Hajhosseini B, King LP. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic treatment of bowel, bladder, and ureteral endometriosis. JSLS. 2011 Jul-Sep; 15(3): 387–392

46) Shah A, Schipper E. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopy. In: Nezhat C, Nezhat F, Nezhat CH, editors. Nezhat’s Video-Assisted and Robotic- Assisted Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2013: 628-632.

47) Nezhat CR, Lewis M, Kotikela S, Veeraswamy A, Saadat L, Hajhosseini B, Nezhat CH. Robotic Versus Standard Laparoscopy for the Treatment of Endometriosis. Fertility and Sterility, (2010) Feb-Dec, Volume 94, Issue 7, P 2758 — 2760.

48) Nezhat C, Lavie O, Lemyre M, Gemer O, Bhagan L, Nezhat CH. Laparoscopic hysterectomy with and without a robot: Stanford experience. JSLS. 2009 Apr-Jun; 13(2): 125–128)

49) Nezhat C, Lavie O, Lemyre M, Unal E, Nezhat CH, Nezhat FR. Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery in Gynecology: Scientific Dream or Reality? Fertility and Sterility, Volume 91, Issue 6, P 2620 — 2622, (2008).

50) Nezhat C, My Journey with AAGL. Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology. 2010; 17(3): 271-277.

51) Nezhat C. Operative endoscopy will replace almost all open procedures. JSLS. 2004;8:101–102.

52) Nezhat C. 2005 Presidential address. JSLS. 2005; 9:370-375​​​​

53) Nezhat C, Nezhat F. Laparoscopic Repair of Ureter Resected During operative Laparoscopy. Obstet Gynecol. September 1992; 80(3 Pt 2): 543-544.

54) Nezhat C, Nezhat F, Nezhat CH. Nezhat’s Operative Gynecologic Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, New York, NY. 4th edition. 2013.

​55) Nezhat C, Nezhat F, Nezhat CH. Endometriosis: ancient disease, ancient treatments. Fertil Steril, 2012, Volume 98, Issue 6, Supplement, Pages S1–S62

56) ​Nezhat et al, Nezhat’s Video-Assisted and Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy. 4th Ed., 2013; Cambridge University Press